Physical Fitness Activity, Aerobic Exercise & Anaerobic Exercise Benefits

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Regular moderate exercises can add 15 - 25 years to your lifespan 

It is well known that moderate exercise, as opposed to strenuous exercise, can significantly improve one’s health and make life longer. Different studies have attempted to show how exactly exercise affects one’s health. The credit to physical activity is given for various effects, for example for it’s ability to relieve stress, lower blood pressure, and increase the level of endorphins (brain hormones that increase the feeling of happiness and well-being and also reduce the amount of fat); physical activity increases the fat burning enzymes in the muscles and helps you stay fit and maintain weight loss; it strengthens heart muscles and improves circulation of blood thereby reducing the risk of heart disease; it reduces the level of glucose and cholesterol in blood and calcium in bones (the cause of osteoporosis); it improves your respiratory system, strengthens your lungs and helps to control asthma; finally, it creates the feeling of self-confidence and control over one’s body and life. 

Mainly due to all these benefits of moderate exercise, physical activity is considered to be essential for those who want to prolong their life span. Several extracts from the studies that show the correlation between moderate physical activity, on the one hand, and the risk of some major diseases and all-cause mortality, on the other, can be found below.

The following types of activity is mostly important for your health and longevity:

****Anaerobic, gym
****Stretching, pilates

Physical activity and risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(7):3143-7.
Sun JY1, Shi L, Gao XD, Xu SF.

Previous studies investigating the association of physical activity with risk of lung cancer reported conflicting results. In order to update and improve available evidence on any link, a meta-analysis was performed.
We searched the PubMed database for prospective cohort studies investigating the relation of physical activity with risk of lung cancer. The pooled relative risk (RR) with its 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) was used to assess the association.
We included 14 prospective studies with a total of 1,644,305 participants, with 14,074 incident lung cancer cases documented during follow-up. Meta-analysis of all 14 studies suggested both high and medium levels of physical activity to be associated with decreased risk of lung cancer compared to the reference group with low level of physical activity (for high level, RR = 0.77, 95%CI 0.73-0.81, P < 0.001; for medium level, RR = 0.87, 95%CI 0.83-0.90, P < 0.001). Subgroup analyses by gender found obvious associations in both men and women. No publication bias was observed.
Our findings suggest that high and medium levels of physical activity have a beneficial effect on lung cancer by reducing the overall risk of tumour development among both men and women.

Moderate Exercises reduces death risk – A study
In the recent developments researchers of Cambridge University, London School of Hygiene and tropical medicine (LSHTM), and Karolinska Institute in Sweden have found that physical activities having mild intensity helps a lot to increase the life span and thus helps in reducing the risk of early death.  The analysis was driven out from the results of various studies carried out on health and related exercises and their impacts. The studies showed vast benefit among individuals who regular does mild exercises like walking and cycling. Even though the more physical exercises helps to gain strength and longevity, moderate exercises also results into good benefits. According to this study, it has been clear that even small amount of exercises i.e. 30 minutes of daily mild work out for 5 days a week can help a lot to achieve longevity. The study further elaborates that 30 minutes daily exercise reduces the death risk by 19% while an hour exercise daily can help to reduce the death risk by 24%. James Woodcock, the lead researcher concludes that even mild exercises daily can help individuals to achieve health benefits. 

Exercise attenuates the major hallmarks of aging.
Rejuvenation Res. 2014 Nov 28
Garatachea N1, Pareja-Galeano H, Sanchis-Gomar F, Santos-Lozano A, Fiuza-Luces C, 
Morán M, Emanuele E, Joyner MJ, Lucia A.
Regular exercise has multisystem anti-aging effects. Here we summarize how exercise impacts the major hallmarks of aging. We propose that, besides searching for novel pharmaceutical targets of the aging process, more research efforts should be devoted to gain insights into the molecular mediators of the exercise benefits and to implement effective exercise interventions for elderly people.

Attenuating the mortality risk of high serum uric acid: the role of physical activity underused.Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Jul 22. pii: annrheumdis-2014-205312. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-205312
Chen JH1, Wen CP2, Wu SB3, Lan JL1, Tsai MK3, Tai YP3, Lee JH3, Hsu CC3, Tsao CK4, Wai JP5, Chiang PH6, Pan WH3, Hsiung CA3.
High serum uric acid (sUA) has been associated with increased mortality risks, but its clinical treatment varied with potential side effects. The role of physical activity has received limited attention.
A cohort, consisting of 467 976 adults, who went through a standard health screening programme, with questionnaire and fasting blood samples, was successively recruited between 1996 and 2008. High sUA is defined as uric acid above 7.0 mg/dL. Leisure time physical activity level was self-reported, with fully active defined as those with 30 min per day for at least 5 days a week. National death file identified 12 228 deaths with a median follow-up of 8.5 years. Cox proportional model was used to analyse HRs, and 12 variables were controlled, including medical history, life style and risk factors.
High sUA constituted one quarter of the cohort (25.6%). Their all-cause mortality was significantly increased [HR: 1.22 (1.15-1.29)], with much of the increase contributed to by the inactive (HR: 1.27 (1.17-1.37)), relative to the reference group with sUA level of 5-6 mg/dL. When they were fully active, mortality risks did not increase, but decreased by 11% (HR: 0.89 (0.82-0.97)), reflecting the benefits of being active was able to overcome the adverse effects of high sUA. Given the same high sUA, a 4-6 years difference in life expectancy was found between the active and the inactive.
Physical activity is a valuable alternative to pharmacotherapy in its ability to reduce the increases in mortality risks from high sUA. By being fully active, exercise can extend life span by 4-6 years, a level greater than the 1-4 years of life-shortening effect from high sUA.

Does Physical Activity Increase Life Expectancy?  
Journal of Aging Research
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 243958, 9 pages
C. D. Reimers,1 G. Knapp,2 and A. K. Reimers3
1Klinik für Neurologie, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Robert-Koch-Allee 9, 99438 Bad Berka, Germany
2Fakultät Statistik, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund, Germany
3Sportwissenschaft, Universität Konstanz, Universitätsstraße 10, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
Physical activity reduces many major mortality risk factors including arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. All-cause mortality is decreased by about 30% to 35% in physically active as compared to inactive subjects. The purpose of this paper was to synthesize the literature on life expectancy in relation to physical activity. A systematic PubMed search on life expectancy in physically active and inactive individuals was performed. In addition, articles comparing life expectancy of athletes compared to that of nonathletes were reviewed. Results of 13 studies describing eight different cohorts suggest that regular physical activity is associated with an increase of life expectancy by 0.4 to 6.9 years. Eleven studies included confounding risk factors for mortality and revealed an increase in life expectancy by 0.4 to 4.2 years with regular physical activity. Eleven case control studies on life expectancy in former athletes revealed consistently greater life expectancy in aerobic endurance athletes but inconsistent results for other athletes. None of these studies considered confounding risk factors for mortality. In conclusion, while regular physical activity increases life expectancy, it remains unclear if high-intensity sports activities further increase life expectancy. 

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exercises, physical activity, lifespan, fitness, aerobic, anaerobic, gym, stretching, pilates.
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