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 Malattie del  fegato e restrizione calorica.

Mechanisms of increased liver tissue repair and survival in diet-restricted rats treated with equitoxic doses of thioacetamide.
Toxicol Sci. 2003 Apr;72(2):272-82. Epub 2003 Mar 7.
Apte UM, Limaye PB, Desaiah D, Bucci TJ, Warbritton A, Mehendale HM.
Department of Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, The University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, Louisiana 71209, USA.
Moderate dietary or caloric restriction (DR) modulates animal physiology in a beneficial fashion. Previously, we have reported an equitoxic dose experiment where liver injury in DR male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to a low dose of thioacetamide (TA, 50 mg/kg) was similar to that observed in ad libitum fed (AL) rats exposed to a 12-fold higher dose (600 mg/kg). Paradoxically, the AL rats experienced 90% mortality while all of the DR rats, with the same amount of initial bioactivation-mediated liver injury, survived. The protection observed in the DR rats was due to efficient compensatory liver tissue repair, which was delayed and attenuated in the AL rats, leading to progression of liver injury. The objective
of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the enhanced tissue repair in the DR rats upon equitoxic challenge with TA. Promitogenic mechanisms and mediators such as proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6), growth factors (TGF-alpha and HGF), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were estimated over a time course after equitoxic challenge (50 mg/kg to DR vs. 600 mg/kg to AL rats). Except for TNF-alpha, all other molecules were expressed earlier and in greater amount in the DR rats. IL-6 was 10-fold greater and peaked 12 h earlier; HGF also peaked 12 h sooner in the DR rats, when it was 2.5-fold greater than the value in the AL rats. TGF-alpha expression in livers of DR rats increased after TA administration and peaked at 24 h. In the AL rats, it was lower and peaked at 36 h. Diet restriction alone induced iNOS 2-fold in the DR rats and remained elevated until 12 h after TA administration, then declined thereafter. The lower iNOS activity in the AL rats further decreased after TA injection. DR rats exhibited higher apoptosis after thioacetamide administration, which further increased the efficiency of tissue repair. Taken together, these data indicate that even though the liver injury is near equal in AL and DR rats, sluggish signal transduction leads to delayed liver regeneration, progression of liver injury, and death in the AL rats. The equitoxic dose experiment indicates that stimulation of tissue repair is independent of the extent of initial liver injury and is governed by physiology of diet restriction. DR stimulates promitogenic signaling leading to a quick and timely response upon liver injury, arrest of progressive injury on one hand, and recovery from injury on the other, paving the way for survival of the DR rats.

Calorie restriction (CR) is the most effective and reproducible intervention for increasing lifespan in a variety of animal species, including mammals. CR is also the most potent, broadly acting cancer-prevention regimen in experimental carcinogenesis models. Translation of the knowledge gained from CR research to human chronic disease prevention and the promotion of healthy aging is critical, especially because obesity, which is an important risk factor for several chronic diseases, including many cancers, is alarmingly increasing in the Western world. This review synthesizes the key biological mechanisms underlying many of the beneficial effects of CR, with a particular focus on the insulin-like growth factor-1 pathway. We also describe some of the opportunities now available for investigations, including gene expression profiling studies, the development of pharmacological mimetics of CR, and the integration of CR regimens with targeted, mechanism-based interventions. These approaches will facilitate the translation of CR research into strategies for effective human chronic disease prevention.

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